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Neuro-Ophthalmic Disease

    Skew Deviation

    Signs and Symptoms Patients will present with a vertical ocular strabismic imbalance. There will also likely demonstrate some ocular torsion along with a head tilt....
    Complete pupil sparing cranial nerve palsy III from ischemic vascular disease

    Cranial Nerve III Palsy

    A patient with acute cranial nerve (CN) III palsy will usually present with sudden-onset unilateral ptosis (or rarely, a bilateral ptosis if the damage occurs to the third nerve nucleus) and ophthalmoplegia.

    Hemifacial Spasm

    Signs and Symptoms Hemifacial spasm (HFS) is a facial nerve disorder characterized by episodic involuntary ipsilateral facial muscle contraction. Patients with HFS are typically acutely...

    Optic Perineuritis

    Signs and Symptoms Optic perineuritis is an inflammatory pseudo-optic neuropathy that may be either unilateral (typical) or bilateral. Though optic nerve dysfunction will be present,...

    Facial Nerve Palsy

    Signs and Symptoms The seventh cranial nerve (CN VII, facial nerve) is responsible for the voluntary motor innervation to the muscles of facial expression, the...

    Melanocytoma Of The Optic Disc

    Signs and Symptoms Melanocytomas (magnocellular nevus) of the optic disc are slightly elevated, typically benign, darkly pigmented tumors that classically occur in or about the...

    Toxic/Nutritional Optic Neuropathy

    Signs and Symptoms Due to myriad potential causes, toxic/nutritional optic neuropathy has no clearly identifiable racial, gender or age-dependent predilection.1,2 The condition presents as a...

    Nystagmus

    Signs and Symptoms Patients with nystagmus will present with a rhythmic oscillation of the eyes. Nystagmus can be pendular (equal oscillatory movements) or jerk (a...

    Leber’s Hereditary Optic Neuropathy

    Signs and Symptoms Most patients affected with Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) are males in early adulthood with vision loss occurring typically between the ages...
    Right cranial nerve VI palsy

    Cranial Nerve VI Palsy

    A patient with cranial nerve (CN) VI palsy will present with horizontal, uncrossed diplopia that worsens at distance in the direction ipsilateral to the involved eye. The patient will have an abduction deficit in the involved eye and a noncomitant esodeviation.
    Ptosis

    Ocular Myasthenia Gravis

    Ocular myasthenia gravis (OMG) is a subset of general myasthenia gravis (GMG) with muscular dysfunction affecting only the levator and extraocular muscles. OMG has a slight male preponderance.

    Morning Glory Syndrome

    Signs and Symptoms Morning glory syndrome (MGS) is a congenital optic disc anomaly that can be discovered at any age, though most patients are usually...
    Optic-Nerve-Head-Hypoplasia

    Optic Nerve Head Hypoplasia

    Signs and Symptoms As optic nerve head (ONH) hypoplasia is congenital in nature, it is typically diagnosed in younger patients at the time of their...

    Optic Disc Drusen

    Signs and Symptoms Optic disc drusen (ODD) represent a condition involving retained hyaline bodies (products of degenerated retinal ganglion cell axoplasmic transport, also known colloid...

    Brain and Orbital Tumor

    Signs and Symptoms Brain and orbital tumors may either be primary lesions or the result of metastasis from primary tumors originating elsewhere. Brain tumors can...

    Internuclear Ophthalmoplegia

    Signs and Symptoms Internuclear ophthalmoplegia (INO) can present in either the young or old and can be due to various etiologies. Patients with INO generally...

    Neuroretinitis

    Signs and Symptoms While neuroretinitis can present in any age group due to several potential causative etiologies, patients are typically younger, and the condition commonly...

    Congenital Optic Disc Pit

    Signs and Symptoms A congenital optic disc pit (CODP) appears as a small, hypopigmented, yellow or whitish, oval or round excavated defect, most often within...

    Tonic Pupil

    Signs and Symptoms Tonic pupils (sometimes referred to as internal ophthalmoplegia) result from damage to the parasympathetic innervation to the eye, resulting in decreased function...

    Aberrant Regeneration Of Cranial Nerve III (Oculomotor Synkinesis)

    Signs and Symptoms Aberrant regeneration of cranial nerve (CN) III, also known as oculomotor synkinesis, is a condition with two forms and a variable presentation....

    Neuromyelitis Optica

    Signs and Symptoms Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) was first described by Albutt in 1870, but the term was not applied until 1894 by Devic; hence the...

    Migraine

    Signs and Symptoms Migraine refers to a group of related chronic episodic conditions chiefly epitomized by headache, but additionally characterized by a specific group of...

    Tilted Disc Syndrome

    Signs and Symptoms Tilted disc syndrome (TDS) is a unilateral or bilateral congenital optic disc anomaly that may be discovered in patients of any age,...
    Right hyper deviation from traumatic cranial nerve IV palsy

    Cranial Nerve IV Palsy

    A patient with cranial nerve (CN) IV palsy (also known as superior oblique palsy, trochlear palsy and fourth nerve palsy) will typically present with complaints of vertical or diagonal diplopia, which often becomes worse as the patient tries to read.

    Diabetic Papillopathy

    Signs and Symptoms Diabetic papillopathy is a unilateral or bilateral (though often asymmetric) painless optic disc edema occurring in patients with diabetes. It was first...